This batter is always light, has no egg and. . .

September 19th, 2012

. . .it certainly has no baking soda [powder],  and definitely no chemicals!!

But before we make this batter, which is made from chickpea [garbanzo] flour and is used for making the most popular ‘tea time’ snack in India, let me tell you how I learnt to make this superb batter using a simple, but effective, technique.

At the Taj Residency Hotel in Bangalore, back in the 80s, we were one of the very few 5 star hotels to have an in-house halwai, or Indian sweetmaker.

Not many hotels got into making such sweets as making Indian sweets is a highly skilled, time-consuming and frankly, thankless task.

Just imagine, after hours of ‘slow cooking’ milk and then reducing it without letting it stick to the bottom of the pan, you get ‘thickened milk’, also called khoya, which is something most hotels prefer to buy.

This dense milk forms the base to most sweets and along with chaina, which is unset paneer, will almost certainly be the ‘beginning and the end’ of Indian sweets, well, with some of the most popular ones at least!!

Now, at the Taj when the hotel was new and work was well, just Fun (capital “F’), we made our own chaina and certainly our own khoya!!

The man responsible for making all these milky bases, and more, was one Mr Mitthan Lal.

Lal had been raised a halwai and his family was seriously into making sweets and savoury snacks in Gwalior which is where Mitthan hails from.

When the dacoits of Chambal looted their village, Mitthan and his three younger brothers escaped with very little personal belongings.

As he was leaving the house, quickly hiding under a pile of hay in a bullock cart, his elderly father handed him two small matkas, or earthenware pots, covered with a red cloth. The young Mitthan Lal held on to these matkas and the hands of his little siblings, in turn, till he reached an unfamiliar territory called Bangalore. The unfamiliarity was compounded as no one spoke his ‘language’ either and so it seemed like a totally foreign land.

However, undeterred, on arrival he quickly found a small place where he and his brothers could get shelter and he also managed to place the two matkas in a water bath. Refrigeration was, of course, out of the question and with four hungry mouths to feed a simple alternative had to be found, quickly, so a water bath was the next best, and essential, thing to keep the matkas fresh.

Anyway, after a struggle to find a job, Mitthan Lal finally got his break and landed a job as a commis in a 5 star hotel.

Always one to seize an advantage, once in the job Mitthan made his moves and quickly established himself as a halwai even though there was no mithai [sweet] making section in that hotel.

He made some basic sweets with whatever resources the hotel provided. In spite of the lack of provisions, word spread quickly that finally there was a proper halwai in Bangalore who could make decent sweets, more than just the ubiquitous gulab jamoons and gajar ka halwa.

The Taj offered Mitthan Lal a job as a senior commis, which he gladly accepted, and he moved to a place called Ulsoor which was near the hotel.

It was here that he started a small shop or, as we call it in India, a mithai ki dukan for his brothers to run while he stirred the kadhais at the Taj. Work progressed at the hotel and Mitthan’s sweet shop also advanced.

In 1986 the Taj Residency made a record 3500 kg of sweets for Diwali which was a record that year for the company back then!!

It was during this mithai making process that I learned more about Mitthan Lal and his matkas. He told me how he would change the water in the ‘water bath’ (which kept the original two matkas that he had brought from Gwalior).

He performed this act for a few months till he got his first job in the 5 star hotel. He then transferred the pots to a fridge when the economy of the house improved and he could afford such ‘luxuries’.

Mitthan finally told me what the contents of the two pots were when I visited his mithai ki dukan.

“Chef Ji,” he said (he always called me Chef Ji), “They contain khamiri [or culture]. The one on the left is for making a savoury snack called pakora.” And he’d point to the left pot kept in the fridge in his mithai ki dukan.

The khamiri for pakora makes the batter light without the addition of any “soda” (baking soda) as Mitthan called it.

Well, that’s good enough for me and let’s get on with the making of this batter.

So, to show you just how well it works I am going to make the most popular ‘tea time’ snack of India, the pakora following Mitthan’s instructions.

However, my pakoras have a good twist too, as they’re filled with paneer-stuffed chillies!!

So, let’s get started folks!


1. 2 cups chickpea [garbanzo] flour or besan
2.  1 teaspoon salt
3.  1 teaspoon ajwain or carrom seeds
4.  1 1/2 tablespoons vegetable oil
5.  1 cup (approx.) water, or more if required

ingredients, from left to right: vegetable oil, salt, ajwain seeds, chickpea flour (besan) & water

To make the batter:

1.  Place the chickpea flour in a medium-sized bowl, add the salt and mix to remove any lumps.

add the salt to the chickpea flour

2. Add the ajwain seeds and mix.

add the ajwain seeds

mix well

3. Heat the oil in a pan until it starts smoking, then immediately pour the hot oil into the seasoned flour.

heat oil in a pan

add hot oil to the flour

the oil should “bubble” due to its heat!

4.  Now add the water gradually and fold till it forms a smooth paste [or ‘dropping-like’ consistency].

add water

fold well, adding more water if required

the batter should be smooth & without lumps

fold till it reaches dropping-like consistency

fthe batter is ready!

cover with cling wrap & set aside in a warm place

5. Cover the bowl with cling wrap and set aside in a warm place for about 2 1/2 hours, or until the batter rises.

 Whilst the batter is resting, you can prepare the chillies.

3 large & 3 medium-sized [banana] chillies
Ingredients for the chilli filling:
1.  100 g fresh paneer
2. 1/2 bunch fresh coriander
3.  Salt, to taste

ingredients, from left to right: chillies, fresh coriander, salt & paneer


Preparing the chillies:

1.  Wipe the chillies with a tea towel, then slit lengthways and remove the seeds, but do not discard. Set aside.

cut the stem of the banana chillies

core & reserve the seeds for the filling

slit chillies lengthways

keep the stem on the small chillies, just slit lengthways

reserve the seeds for the filling

Preparing the filling:

1.  In a medium-sized mixing bowl, roughly tear the fresh coriander.

tear the coriander

2.Add the roughly crumbled paneer and mix.

add the crumbled paneer

3.Then add some salt, to taste.

tear the coriander

add salt

4.  Add the chilli seeds.

scrape the seeds from the core of the banana chillies & add

do the same for the small chillies

5.  Mix all the ingredients so they are well combined and set aside

mix well

6.  Now fill each chilli with the paneer filling.

take the stuffing and shape it into an oval shape so it fits into the chilli

stuff the chilli!!

stuffed chilli

do the same for the banana chillies

stuffing the banana chillies

voila, stuffed chillies now ready for the batter

To make the pakora stuffed chillies:

1.  Take the batter and set set aside 1 teaspoon in a small bowl, cover with cling wrap and replace in the refrigerator. [This process is extremely important as this batter will become your khamiri [culture] for your next batch of batter!]

the batter after it has “rested”

keep some aside for the next time for the “khamiri”

2.  Heat 3–4 cups vegetable oil in a pan to fry the chillies.

3.  Dip each stuffed chilli in the batter and fry in the hot oil, till crisp.

dip the stuffed chilli in the batter

coat evenly with the batter

shake off any excess batter

add chillies to the hot oil, a couple at a time

frying the chillies until golden!

remove from oil & drain on paper towels

drain any excess oil

4.  Serve your batter fried chillies with a tamarind chutney.

cut in half & arrange on a plate

bhare mirchi ke pakode or stuffed chillies!!

So, what is the big deal about this khamiri, since I have not used it in my recipe?

Well, if I had had the khamiri in my refrigerator as my ‘starter’ some positives would have been evident in my batter:

Firstly, the batter would have risen in about 1/2 an hour, or even less. (But then we must start somewhere and now I’ve got a small bowl of khamiri now sitting in my refrigerator, ready for the next time!)

Secondly, the batter would have been consistent in texture to the previous batch and therefore it would have a consistent taste.

Well, that brings me to the end of the khamiri process.

But before I go, if you’re curious about what was in the second matka in Mitthan Lal’s refrigerator it was a khamiri for making paneer.

These were his family ‘secrets’ that were passed on from one generation to the next. It was the equivalent of passing down grandmother’s jewels and Mitthan was the sole custodian!!

Well done, Mitthan, not bad for a guy who never went to school and thanks to you for sharing your family’s well-cherished recipe!!

Anah Daata Sukhi Bhava!!


  1. Ajoy Joshi

    Hello Radhika,
    Sorry for the delay in getting back.
    I think the shop is in Ulsoor and is next to the Udipi restaurant. Not sure about the name.
    Happy cooking !!

  2. radhika25

    Came across your blog yesterday and am hooked! And this one about the mirchi bajis!! I got married in 86 in Bangalore, lived in Ulsoor, ate so very often at the Taj! It evoked a lot of nostalgia. Is the halwai shop Tiwari’s or Bhagatram by any chance? Couldn’t be KC Das (Bengali) right?

  3. Ajoy Joshi

    Hello Shruti,
    Good to hear from again!!
    The ‘khamiri’ will stay in the fridge for about 6 months as long as it ‘cling wrapped. We don’t make pakoras very often, but when the ‘taste buds’ want it we just make it using the ‘starter’.
    Very easy and simple!!
    You should not freeze it as it is a living organism!!
    You can use it for making your idli and dosai batter light!!
    Happy cooking!!

  4. shrutisharma

    This khamiri concept sounds amazing – that too for pakoras. Am definitely going to use it next time I make pakoras. I have some questions:
    1. How long will it keep in the fridge? I don’t make pakoras that often (unfortunately!!)
    2. Can I freeze it?
    3. Can I use it for something else?

  5. Ajoy Joshi

    Hello K,
    Thanks for the comments.
    I believe the shop still exists in the same place, same spot!
    Happy cooking!!

  6. K

    Very interesting … BTW is Mr Lal’s dukan still open in Bangalore? What is its name? I would definitely like to check it out next time I am in Bangalore.

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